California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle) 

Integrated Waste Management Disaster Plan

Chapter 3: Debris Management Programs (Steps 1-9)

Background: The decision whether to establish a debris diversion program is made at the outset of the disaster response and in the wake of extreme pressure to first restore public services and ensure the public health and safety.

Diversion programs may not seem a priority in comparison to the initial life saving operations that a jurisdiction must undertake. However, with some planning and forethought, these programs can be implemented and significant savings realized in reduced labor, transportation, and disposal costs, and preservation of landfill capacity.

What's in this chapter?

Overview: This chapter presents common issues and potential barriers to the diversion programs discussed in the Plan.

The pre-disaster, or planning, activities are discussed in Chapters 1 and 2, Government Coordination and Pre-disaster Assessment respectively. By developing the checklists discussed in these chapters, a jurisdiction can evaluate its level of preparedness to handle disaster debris and focus on those areas that need to be developed.

Following is a summary of steps integral to developing a debris management strategy and establishing diversion programs. The 21 steps highlight the issues common to debris management programs in general.

Step Actions to take
1 Make diversion programs a priority.
2 Become familiar with federal debris removal criteria and guidelines.
3 Develop debris removal and diversion strategies.
4 Identify project scope
5 Select debris management program.
6 Identify program barriers.
7 Set program goals.
8 Identify labor needs.
9 Identify equipment and processing requirements.
10 Determine method of operation.
11 Adapt program length.
12 Develop funding options.
13 Establish public information program.
14 Develop monitoring and enforcement program.
15 Develop a contingency plan.
16 Pursue regional coordination.
17 Develop incentives for diversion.
18 Compile documentation and develop /tracking system
19 Develop a training program.
20 Set up records retention system and archives.
21 Prepare a final report.

Step 1: make diversion programs a priority

Make it happen: It is imperative that top management give high priority to debris diversion programs at the outset and provide the necessary support and resources for the programs. Without leadership and dedicated support from those directing the disaster recovery, recycling and diversion programs become secondary in importance, thus losing opportunities to establish such programs.

Local policies: Pre-planning is the most effective way to ensure diversion activities are carried out after a disaster. Jurisdictions can identify and establish in advance local policies for diversion programs in the event of a disaster.

Another method is for local governing body to pass a resolution stating that in the event of a disaster, the jurisdiction will implement debris management programs, primarily diversion programs.

By having local policies in place to require that recycling or other diversion programs be implemented after a disaster, or routinely, can lend critical support to a jurisdiction's request to receive FEMA reimbursement for recycling and other diversion programs.

Authority to act: The following are examples of how City staff responsible for implementing the programs and executing contracts for those programs were given the direct authority to do so by their governing body.

This flexibility allowed staff to concentrate on managing the disaster response by expending less time on administrative processes to obtain approvals to carry out the response.

Example: The City of Santa Clarita City Council delegated

City of Santa Clarita: responsibility to the City Manager to handle all phases of the disaster response and recovery. The City Manager in turn delegated responsibility for the development of the debris management strategy and programs to the Solid Waste Division, which consisted of a staff of three. Even so, the City's earthquake program realized a 97% diversion rate based on recycling more than 250,000 tons of debris over an 11-month period.

City of Oakland: The Oakland City Manager was authorized by emergency ordinance to take action for the protection of life and property in a disaster. As a result, during the 1991 Firestorm, the City Manager was authorized to take those actions necessary to carry out the disaster recovery, which included executing contracts for debris removal, recycling, and/or disposal. Having such an ordinance in place before a disaster saved the City considerable time in initiating its disaster recovery operations.

Step 2: become familiar with federal debris removal criteria and guidelines

Become familiar: Upon the Presidential declaration of a major disaster or emergency, Federal assistance is available. FEMA designates the area eligible for assistance and the types of assistance available. FEMA may grant assistance for:

  • debris removal,
  • emergency protective measures, and
  • the permanent restoration of facilities.

To increase your jurisdiction's preparedness, become familiar with the type of state and federal assistance that is available because this will likely determine the type and scope of debris removal and diversion programs to be established during the recovery phase.

Attachment: For more detail on the federal debris removal criteria and guidelines, refer to Attachment A of this chapter.

Step 3: develop a debris removal strategy [1]

Two phases: In its pilot Debris Management Course, FEMA recommends developing a debris removal strategy for large-scale debris removal operations by dividing the operation into two phases.

In addition, based upon the experience of California jurisdictions in their recovery operations, it is recommended that diversion program activities be incorporated into the Phase II operation, as reflected below.

Phase I - removing debris that hinders the immediate life saving actions that pose an immediate threat to public health and safety; and

Phase II - removing and disposing of debris that hinders the orderly recovery of the community and poses less immediate threats to health and safety.

Diversion - include development of debris management strategies, including establishment of programs for recycling and reuse of the disaster debris, as well as monitoring of removal and diversion activities to include the tasks in the table below.

Phases description: Activities carried out in each phase are described in the table below:

Debris Removal Phases Actions to be taken
Phase I:

Emergency Roadway Debris Removal

Clearing emergency access routes. Roadway debris is moved to the side of the road to open access routes into devastated areas.

No attempt is made to remove or dispose of the debris, only to clear key access routes to allow for the following:

  • movement of emergency vehicles,
  • law enforcement,
  • resumption of critical services, and
  • damage assessment of critical public facilities and utilities.
Phase II:

Public Rights-of-Way Debris Removal

During the emergency opening of key routes, mixed debris is pushed to the shoulders of the roadway, along the public right-of-way. The initial road side piles of debris can become the dumping locations for additional yard waste, personal property, construction material, trash, etc.

"The debris manager and staff must now coordinate the removal of this debris, and should be prepared to take the following actions:

  • "develop a reliable initial assessment of the disaster's magnitude;
  • coordinate through local agencies to establish a contracted work force capable of expeditions removal of the debris;
  • coordinate with local and state Department of Transportation and law enforcement authorities to ensure that traffic control measures expedite debris removal activities;
  • evaluate damaged utility systems, structurally unstable buildings, and other heavily damaged public facilities and determine if they should be repaired, deactivated, barricaded, or removed; [2]
Diversion programs development Develop a debris diversion strategy for establishment of diversion (recycling and reuse) programs that includes the following:
  • projected types and amounts of materials likely to be generated;
  • available processing facilities and potential end-use markets for the collected debris;
  • list of haulers and processors;
  • labor and processing equipment needs;
  • temporary storage areas; contracts and franchise agreements;
  • public information program methods; and
  • funding options.

Monitor the removal and diversion activities to:

  • develop a tracking and documentation system to account for the types and amounts of debris collected;
  • develop contingency plan to handle debris immediately after disaster;
  • develop diversion incentives;
  • develop monitoring and enforcement program;
  • set up records retention system and archives; and
  • prepare final report on program activities and results.

Step 4: identify project scope [3]

Project scope: Identifying the project scope is critical to setting the parameters for recovery operations (Phases II and III). Take the following steps:

  • define the project area;
  • determine if jurisdiction will remove debris from private property;
  • develop an estimate of the types and quantities of debris to be removed (see Chapter 4);
  • select temporary storage, recycling, and disposal sites; and (see Chapter 4); and
  • determine need for processing facilities and whether existing disposal capacity is sufficient for expected volumes of debris.

Private property demolition and debris removal

Who is responsible: The need for private property debris clearance is the first critical determination that has to be made in defining the specific area or areas to be contracted.

Debris removal on private property is the primary responsibility of the individual property owner aided by insurance settlements and assistance from voluntary agencies.

Insurance coverage: Most homeowner, fire, and extended coverage insurance policies have specific coverage for debris removal from private property and for demolition of heavily damaged structures. Flood insurance policies do not provide coverage for debris removal.

The standard practice is that the individual property owners are responsible for moving debris to the curb for pick up by city or county work forces.

Public agency responsibility: In those cases where the individual property owners are unable to remove the debris from their property, the jurisdiction may determine that it is in the public interest to remove the debris for them.

Use the following criteria to make this decision:

  • the debris is an immediate health and safety threat to the general public, or
  • the debris is of such a magnitude that the economic recovery of the community would be threatened.

Example: No-cost demolition

In establishing its building demolition program after the Northridge earthquake, the City of Los Angeles determined that most of the affected residents did not have earthquake insurance. As a result, the City assumed responsibility for the demolition of private structures that threatened the public health and safety.

To help residents rebuild, the City offered demolition services at no cost if the building had suffered greater than 50% damage or had greater than 35% of its structural system compromised.

Release form: A standard release form from individual property owners is required to hold and save the government free of liabilities when government forces or contractors perform work on private property. (A copy of a typical release form can be found in Attachment B).

Map project area: Clearly define the limits of the project area by delineating the boundaries of the project area on a map.

This map will identify to contractors the area or areas to be included in the contract.

Additionally, in a debris removal project where many contractors may be working, this can help ensure that the contractors remain in their assigned work area.

Establishing the work area is also important to identify key items such as:

  • ingress and egress routes to the project area;
  • location of utilities; and
  • distance to recycling, storage, and disposal sites.

Step 5: select a debris management program

Criteria for selection: Once a jurisdiction has undertaken an assessment of its probable waste stream, facilities, temporary storage areas, and markets for the collected materials, it can then determine the program(s) to be implemented.

For the specific assessment, refer to Chapter 2, Pre-disaster Assessment. This will indicate the types of materials that could be generated during different kinds of disasters. Based on the amount and types of debris to be handled, jurisdictions can plan for diversion programs accordingly.

Assessment factors: The selected program should be best suited to the jurisdiction based on an assessment of the following:

  • materials generated,
  • facilities available,
  • need for temporary storage areas,
  • haulers/processors/brokers,
  • processing requirements/barriers,
  • end-uses for collected materials,
  • markets, and
  • local conditions.

Most often used programs: Programs most often used include those in the table on the following pages. For each major program type, there will be source separated recycling programs to handle a particular waste type. Examples include mulching and chipping operations for wood, smelting for metals, and concrete crushing. Issues associated with each of the diversion programs are also included for consideration as they could impact the program's effectiveness.

Program Description Materials generated Source separated recycling programs Issues
Curbside Residents place their disaster debris at the curbside for city crews or contractors to pick up. household furniture,
HHW (see below)
wood chipping, mulching,
concrete crushing
Source separation is key to avoiding contamination and increasing product marketability. Consider requiring source separation as part of the program and advertise program requirements to residents and contractors. Source separation on site can decrease costs for labor, transportation, processing, and disposal.

One approach is to offer free debris pick-up if materials are separated at the curb and charge a high fee for the pick-up of mixed debris.

Building Demolition Buildings damaged beyond repair or those representing a safety hazard are torn down. wood,
wood chipping, mulching,
scrap metal
Hand salvaging will yield more recyclable materials, although time required to do so may be more than traditional demolition. For building demolition in general, Increased savings in disposal and transportation costs, with likely increase in labor costs.

Depending on the age of the building, asbestos and lead paint abatement may be a concern.

HHW Residents take their HHW to a collection event, mobile collection vehicle, or to a permanent collection center. paint, pesticides, household cleaners, oil oil filter recycling
material exchange
hazardous waste disposal
Residents must be informed to keep HHW separate from the rest of the disaster debris. This will reduce contamination of the materials and will help to ensure that collected materials are not designated as hazardous and disposed of as such.
Drop-off Residents place debris in bins located throughout the community. Separate bins can be designated for specific materials or all materials can be placed in one bin and separated later. same as curbside same as curbside This may be more convenient for remote or rural areas where curbside collection is not available or practical or in areas where the topography precludes curbside collection.

Contamination of materials is a concern as is security at the collection sites. Placement of the equipment may pose problems, depending on the area's topography.

Fencing This program was specific to the City of Los Angeles and instituted because the City had an ordinance requiring that all swimming pools be fenced. cinder block   The City assumed responsibility for fencing pools on private property in the interest of public health and safety.
Ghost Town Abandoned private property was boarded up for public health and safety reasons. N/A N/A Liability issues and crime prevention are the most pressing issues.

Other programs

Ghost town program: Does a city/county assume liability for private property that has been abandoned by the property owner if the property poses a public health or safety threat? This may be an issue facing your jurisdiction for which you will need to develop a policy.

Abandoned property can lower the surrounding propertyvalues or create a public nuisance. The City of Los Angeles responded by assuming liability for the abandoned properties and executed a Ghost Town contract whereby the City boarded up, cleaned, and fenced the abandoned properties.

Condominiums: In the case of condominiums, FEMA will authorize demolition work only if all owners of the condominiums participate in the demolition program. Consider how to handle a situation where not all residents want to participate in the city or county-sponsored program, thus eliminating the other residents' ability to have their homes demolished.

Drop-off program: A drop-off program may be more useful for remote communities, those where residents do not have curbside pickup, or areas that are sparsely populated. Issues to consider are contamination of materials and security needs at the site.

Example: The City of Santa Clarita considered setting up a program using roll-off bins, but instituted a curbside collection program instead based on the following considerations:

  • In order to achieve a high level of service, it would require a roll-off box on every corner. It is doubtful that any company could supply this.
  • Roll-off container use would increase the amount of mixed waste deposited in them. This in turn, would reduce the recycling rate.
  • Removing waste from the bins presented the potential for extra equipment since loaders are needed to get debris to dumping level.
  • Roll-off bins represented a potential increased liability.
  • The bins also posed a potentially greater traffic hazard via blind spots from roll-offs at every corner versus occasional piles of debris at the curbside.
  • The cost for roll-off is potentially more than curbside pickups programs. Beyond the initial capital outlay, the City had to consider that FEMA will only reimburse low-cost bid.

Step 6: identify program barriers

Identify barriers: Identify potential barriers to a debris management program and develop contingency plans to avoid problems. This will assist in proposing solutions to those barriers in advance. Such barriers can include:

  • blockage of major transportation corridors;
  • closure of recycling or disposal facilities;
  • lack of funding;
  • lack of temporary storage areas (see Chp. 4);
  • illegal dumping at temporary storage areas (see Chp 4);
  • limited markets for targeted waste types;
  • limited contractors available;
  • residents, businesses, and other governmental; agencies cleaning up independently of the city/county-sponsored program; and
  • insurance company requirements.

Liability: Be aware of the liability issues associated with debris management and develop procedures to handle the following:

  • wrong building demolished;
  • city workers or volunteers entering and damaging private property City/county worker/contractor injured;
  • "debris" collected from private property which should not have been removed;
  • ghost towns (abandoned property); and
  • demolishing a unit in a condominium complex.

Rebuilding: Rebuilding also generates debris. Although rebuilding activity is a result the disaster, the waste generated is not considered disaster debris. For this reason, FEMA reimbursement may not be available. Check with your OES Regional Office to determine the rebuilding activity's funding eligibility.

A jurisdiction, however, can take advantage of diversion programs already established to handle the disaster debris and capture the rebuilding wastestream.

To avoid confusion, keep the two wastestreams separate so FEMA reimbursement for the disaster debris program will not be affected. However, this was not possible in Los Angeles since many victims were still removing earthquake debris while neighbors were rebuilding. There was no clear end to one activity before beginning the other.

Greenwaste: In addition, this is the time residents may work on landscaping their yards and generate large amounts of greenwaste. Again, this is not debris generated as a direct result of the disaster, and is not eligible for FEMA reimbursement.

Jurisdictions should take note if this occurs and notify homeowners that the debris must be kept separate from the earthquake-related debris (that is, do not place this material at the curbside or place in bins designated for disaster debris, etc.)

Source separation: Source separate materials and leave them at the curb. In this way, they can be sent directly to processing facilities. If you place all debris together at the curb, it is more likely that the materials will be sent to a mixed waste facility, which can be significantly more costly than a recycling facility.

Realize that there will be extra labor costs for separating the collected materials before they go to a recycling facility. This equates to more time and expense. This can also be the key to realizing a successful diversion program.

Mixed waste facilities:  Because many jurisdictions may not have mixed waste facilities nearby, this will limit the diversion potential. In the case of the City of Los Angeles, one of the City's goals was to establish mixed waste facilities not only to handle the disaster debris but also to become part of the infrastructure and be available after the disaster debris was gone.

CalTrans: The State Department of Transportation (CalTrans) maintains jurisdiction over any state or federal road. Consequently, when these roads/freeways are repaired, demolished, or rebuilt, CalTrans is responsible for the cleanup of the resulting debris.

Although the city or county may have established a diversion program for these materials collected in a city/county cleanup, it will be necessary to discuss the diversion of these materials with CalTrans individually. CalTrans can specify in the cleanup contract that the contractor will divert or recycle the materials.

Step 7: set program goals

Background: It is important at the outset to set program goals for the recycling and diversion programs undertaken. Program goals will help determine the program's success in meeting diversion goals, ensure the program's cost-effectiveness, and help evaluate whether changes are needed during implementation or whether other programs need to be established.

Example: After the Northridge earthquake in 1994, the City of Los Angeles established goals for their pilot debris removal program which consisted of two components

  1. collection of earthquake debris placed at curbside by City residents, and
  2. demolition of buildings damaged by the earthquake.

Program goals: The program goals for the pilot program were to: [4]

  • determine maximum recycling rates;
  • determine facility needs for a massive diversion effort;
  • gain knowledge about the costs associated with a diversion program run at maximum efficiency;
  • increase, through private investment, the capacity of private sector facilities which can process mixed earthquake (and C&D) debris for recovery of recyclables at high rates; and
  • save landfill space.

DSR for recycling: Based on the success of the pilot program, FEMA approved a Damage Survey Report (DSR) for the City's debris removal and recycling program which was then expanded citywide. (See Attachment D for a copy of the DSR).

DSRs: Damage assessments and Damage Survey Reports or DSRs are the foundation for FEMA/OES reimbursement after a disaster. The DSRs provide a description of the damage, set forth the scope work , and give a cost estimate of the work to be performed. Based upon the damage assessment conducted by the federal/state/local inspection teams, a DSR is written. (Refer to Chapter 16 for more information on damage assessments and damage survey reports).

Example: Similarly, the City of Santa Clarita, in establishing their diversion programs after the Northridge earthquake, set up the following program features. The City identified the following five features as ones that would maximize recovery and diversion while maintaining an effective collection effort.

  • No tipping fees. This would discourage illegal dumping.
  • Enforcement of illegal dumping ordinances or regulations.
  • Provide debris diversion information to haulers and residents.
  • Provide security assurance against hazardous materials or contaminated inerts being dumped.
  • City will assume ownership of material product to ensure reuse.

Contractor responsibility: Although this was one of the City's goals, the City later changed its position and assigned ownership of the materials to the contractor, who was responsible for collecting and marketing the materials. The City did this in an effort to avoid conflict with FEMA over reimbursement for its diversion programs. Had the City retained ownership of the collected materials and received revenues from their sale, FEMA could have reduced the City's reimbursement for the diversion program since there was no compelling local program or plan.

Step 8: identify labor needs

Estimate staffing: An estimate of staffing becomes one of the most important aspects of disaster debris management as the recovery begins. It is likely that the jurisdiction's staffing resources will be overwhelmed in responding to the disaster.

Staff will be needed to manage the recovery programs as well as field staff to implement the programs. There are several resources available that can help a jurisdiction in its emergency response.

  • Mutual Aid Agreement;
  • Emergency Managers Mutual Aid;
  • California Conservation Corps (CCC);
  • Employment Development Department (EDD);
  • City/county staff available from other agencies; and
  • volunteer and non-profit agencies.

Determine staffing needs in light of the diversion program needs. Based upon the selected program, identify staff resources needed, including number and classification of staff. Identify staff available within the agency and those who may be needed from other agencies.

Do not underestimate the staffing needed to develop and maintain a tracking system to monitor the debris recycled and disposed and the facilities used. The system is critical to verifying weight tickets when used as payment, determining the program's recycling and disposal rates, and monitoring facility usage. The City of Los Angeles employed six full-time staff.

For more information, refer to the City of Los Angeles' Northridge Earthquake Response Effort, Final Report, Issue No. 7, 9/15/95.

For assistance: To request mutual aid from neighboring cities or counties, follow the Standardized Emergency Management System Mutual Aid procedures (see Chapter 13 for more information on SEMS).

Staff functions: Keep in mind that staff will be needed for diversion program implementation as well as for the administrative functions that will serve the overall recovery operations. A listing of the staff functions that will be needed in recovery operations is contained in the table, "Departments and Functions Represented in Recovery Process" on pages 7-9 of Chapter 1.

Employment Development Department

Assistance provided: The Employment Development Department (EDD) can provide workers through the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) contract (funds provided by FEMA and administered by the State EDD).

Plan for workers: Be aware that the city/county is dependent upon EDD preparing a plan to use the workers, which FEMA must approve before workers can be hired. In the case of Northridge, six months elapsed before EDD had completed the plan, although the City of Los Angeles needed the workers immediately.

Job descriptions: In addition, the JTPA (EDD) contract targeted workers from the disaster area who had lost their jobs or had otherwise been displaced by the disaster. However, before EDD can submit a plan to FEMA to use the workers, the jurisdiction must write job descriptions and determine job classifications for these workers.

Consult unions: Be sure to consult with the unions for city and county workers to ensure that this outside labor does not affect union agreements. In the case of the City of Los Angeles, the unions did not object to the contract.

Step 9: identify equipment and processing requirements

Equipment types: Make equipment selections based upon the type of activity to be carried out and the materials involved. The table below groups construction and demolition (C&D) processing equipment into three main types:

  • conveying,
  • crushing/reducing, and
  • screening/separating.
  Equipment Materials Handled
Conveying Equipment Conveyors transfer materials from one location to another. The most common type of conveying equipment used to process C&D is a belt conveyor which consists of a strip of belting material that is looped around a shaft on each end. All types of C&D
Crushing/Reducing Equipment Size reduction is the unit operation in which waste materials are mechanically reduced in size. The objective is to obtain a product that is reasonably uniform and considerably reduced in size in comparison with its original form.
1. Hydraulic breaker or jackhammer A pneumatic impact tool is used for breaking oversized material into pieces small enough to be processed by the next crusher/reduction unit in the process. Concrete pavement, foundations.
2. Jaw Crusher Designed to crush large chunks of concrete, asphalt, etc. Concrete, asphalt, pipes, steel, rebar, manhole lids, etc. Compressible materials such as wood and plastics tend to jam up the jaws and severely reduce throughput.
3. Hopper Receives the chunks and feeds them to the cone, or impactor. Can choose either cone or impactor, or both.
4. Cone Crushes concrete and asphalt to aggregate size Can choose either cone or impactor, or both.
5. Impactor Crushes concrete and asphalt to aggregate size  
Hammermill Also known as wood hogs, can process a variety of wood materials. Reduction occurs as the heavy hammers, attached to a rotating element, impact the material as it enters and eventually force the shredded material through the discharge of the unit. Wood
Stump Grinder Large machines, often trailer-mounted and top-loaded by on-board knuckleboom loaders. The machine is more expensive than a wood hog but can handle large bulky materials. Wood, stumps
Rotary Shear Shredders Low-speed, high-torque machines that rip and tear material apart. Ideal for primary reduction of bulky wood material, such as pallets, crates and stumps, up to 3" to 4" in diameter. Large units can also reduce concrete, steel drums, white goods and furniture.
Screw Shredders Shredding is done by two parallel screws with opposing threads. bulky wood material, including tree stumps, brush, logs, scrap lumber, clean wood, pallets, trees, yard trimmings.
Screening/Separating Equipment Screening is a unit operation used to separate mixtures of materials of different sizes into two or more size fractions by means of one or more screening surfaces.
Grizzly Screen Vibrating grizzly feeders are ideal for feeding rubble and mixed C&D material to the primary crusher. rubble and mixed C&D material
Vibrating Screen Vibrating screens can be designed to vibrate from side to side, vertically, or lengthwise.  
Trommel Screen An inclined rotating cylindrical screen where material to be separated tumbles and contacts the screen several times as it travels down the length of the screen.  
Disc Screen Disc screens consist of parallel horizontal shafts equipped with interlocking lobed (or star-shaped) discs that run perpendicular to the flow of infeed material. Wood
Air Classifiers A separator which uses an air stream to separate materials based on the weight difference of the material. Commingled waste (plastic, glass, paper, metal)
Flotation A unit operation which employs water to separate wood from rubble-based material. separate wood from rubble-based material
Magnetic & Electric Field Separation Uses the electrical and magnetic properties of waste materials to separate them.
Magnetic Separation Designed to remove ferrous metals from a moving bed of material. ferrous materials
Electrostatic Separation High-voltage electrostatic fields can be used to separate nonconductors of electricity, such as glass, plastic, and paper, from conductors such as metals. nonconductors such as glass, plastic, and paper
Eddy Current Separation Separates non-ferrous metal (usually aluminum cans) from the waste stream by passing a current through the materials. These systems can be expensive.  
Manual Picking Station An elevated platform with a conveyor and a catwalk along both sides of the conveyor. Manual sorting is done by removing specified items from the conveyor and dumping`` them in the appropriate chute provided.  

Processing techniques - wood, concrete, and asphalt [5]

Table: The table below describes various processing techniques for wood, concrete, and asphalt.

Wood Processing

  • Wood

    C&D wood waste can be processed according to the intended end use. Options can include:

    • chipping with a mobile chipper or grinder at the site where the waste is produced;
    • hauling to a processing facility that accepts and processes wood waste only; or,
    • delivering to a full-service processing facility where multiple types of C&D wastes are processed.
  • Non-wood waste:
    • Non-wood wastes are first separated from the waste. If not source-separated, some facilities use flotation tanks to separate wood from non-wood material.

Concrete and asphalt processing

  • Concrete
    • Portland cement concrete (PCC) is commonly called "concrete." Concrete is mostly made of aggregate; the cement serves to bind the aggregate together. Concrete can be crushed on-site and used immediately for aggregate base, or hauled to a crushing plant.
  • Asphalt concrete processing
    • Asphalt concrete (AC) pavement is commonly called "asphalt." Asphalt is mostly made of aggregate (94%); the asphalt binder serves to bind the aggregate together. Asphalt can be crushed on-site, mixed with crushed concrete, and used immediately for aggregate base, or hauled to crushing plant.

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Last updated: November 16, 2004
Disaster Preparedness and Response
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