California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle)

LEA and Facility Operator Training

Presentation: Hazardous Waste Classification in California, Spring 2002

Corey Yep
Waste Identification and Recycling Section
State Regulatory Programs Division
Hazardous Waste Management Program
Department of Toxic Substances Control

Purpose of Course

To introduce the basic concepts of hazardous waste classification criteria in California

Objectives

Understand the term “waste

Understand exclusions and exemptions that may apply

Understand what the hazardous waste listings and characteristics are

Waste Classification Requirement

Two sets of standards in California

  • Federal requirements
  • State requirements

Federal Requirements

Statute: Chapter 42, United States Code (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act or RCRA)

Regulations:  Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR)

State Requirements

Statute:  California Health and Safety Code, Division 20, Chapter 6.5, Hazardous Waste Control Law

Regulations:  California Code of Regulations, Division 4.5, Title 22

Important Note:  Unlike the federal requirements, in California both statutes and regulations contain specific requirements

California is a federally “authorized state

Generally, California’s requirements contain all hazardous waste requirements that apply in California

Most newly adopted federal regulations do not apply in California until California adopts them

Definition of Hazardous Waste 25117 HSC

Hazardous Waste

  • waste that meets criteria adopted by DTSC pursuant to 25141 HSC
  • includes RCRA hazardous wastes

Hazardous Waste Criteria 25141 HSC

Criteria shall identify wastes because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical or infectious characteristics

  • causes or significantly contributes to an increase in mortality, serious irreversible or incapacitating reversible illness
  • pose substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment, due to …carcinogenicity, acute or chronic toxicity, bioaccumulative properties, or persistence in the environment, when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed

Chapter 11--Identification and Listing of Hazardous Wastes

Article 1

  • General Provisions
  • Definition of Waste
  • Definition of Hazardous Waste

Article 2

  • Criteria for Identifying the Characteristics of Hazardous Waste

Article 3

  • Characteristics of Hazardous Waste

Article 4

  • Lists of RCRA Hazardous Wastes

Article 5

  • Categories of Hazardous Waste

Waste Classification Process

Waste Identification

Overview of the waste classification process

  • Is the material a waste?
  • Is the material excluded or exempted?
  • Is the waste excluded or exempted?
  • Is the waste listed in Article 4?
  • Is the waste listed in Appendix X?
  • Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?

Waste: Layperson’s definition

A material that has been used or has otherwise served its intended purpose and, for whatever reason (contaminated, spent, or intent) can or will no longer be used for its intended purpose

Definition of Waste
25124 HSC
66261.2 22 CCR

A waste is any discarded material (in any physical form, such as solid, liquid, semi-solid, contained gas) that is not excluded by 66261.4(a), 66261.4(e), or 25143.2(b) or 25143.2(d)

Discarded
22 CCR 66261.2(b)

A material is discarded if it is:

  • Relinquished
  • Recycled
  • Inherently waste-like

Relinquished
22 CCR 66261.2(c)

A material is relinquished if it is:

  • disposed of
  • burned or incinerated
  • accumulated, stored or treated (but not recycled) before, or in lieu of, being relinquished

Recycled
22 CCR 66261.2(d)

A material is a waste if it is recycled (or accumulated, stored or treated prior to recycling) if it is:

  • used in a manner constituting disposal (placed on land)
  • burned for energy recovery
  • reclaimed
  • accumulated speculatively

Inherently Waste-like
22 CCR 66261.2(e)

A material is a waste if it is inherently waste-like when it is recycled

  • RCRA waste codes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026 and F028 (contain dioxins)
  • secondary materials fed to a halogen acid furnace

Packaging/Labeling
22 CCR 66261.2(f)

Materials are also wastes if they are:

  • mislabeled or inadequately labeled, unless labeled correctly within 10 days
  • in a deteriorated or damaged container, unless repackaged within 96 hours

Must pose a threat to human health or the environment

Waste Exclusions
25124 HSC

Materials that are not discarded:

  • Intermediate manufacturing process streams
  • Coolants, lubricants or cutting fluids that are filtered to extend their useful life

Waste Exclusions
25143.2 HSC

Certain recyclable materials

  • ingredients in industrial processes
  • substitutes for commercial products
  • returned to original process w/out reclamation
  • recycled/reused onsite

Waste Exclusions
22 CCR 66261.4(a)

Materials that are not wastes:

  • Point source discharges subject to CWA (NPDES permits)
  • Nuclear wastes
  • Spent sulfuric acid used to produce virgin sulfuric acid
  • reclaimed pulping liquors
  • reclaimed secondary materials returned to original process

Overview of hazardous waste classification

  • Is the material a waste?
  • Is the material excluded or exempted?
  • Is the waste excluded or exempted?
  • Is the waste listed in Article 4?
  • Is the waste listed in Appendix X?
  • Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?

Hazardous Waste Exclusions
22 CCR 66261.4(b)

Wastes that are not hazardous wastes:

  • Infectious wastes (animal carcasses)
  • Wastes excluded under 40 CFR 261.4 *
  • Used oil re-refining still bottoms used in asphalt products
  • Used CFCs that are reclaimed
  • Mining wastes

Hazardous Waste Exclusions
22 CCR 66261.4(b)

*Wastes excluded under 261.4(b), unless the waste also exhibits an Article 3 characteristic

  • Household wastes
  • Agricultural wastes used as fertilizers
  • Mining overburden
  • Fossil fuel combustion wastes
  • Trivalent chromium wastes (leather tanning)
  • Mining wastes
  • Cement kiln dust
  • Arsenic treated wood
  • And more...

Hazardous Waste Exemptions
22 CCR 66261.4(c-g)

  • materials in product or raw material storage tanks are exempt until removed (within 90 days of ceasing operation)
  • samples - subject to regulation as a waste after use as a sample ceases
  • treatability study samples for generator and labs
  • controlled substances

Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions
25141.5(b)(2)(B) HSC

These wastes are not hazardous wastes if only hazardous by oral LD50 criteria

Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions
25141.5(b)(2)(B) HSC

These wastes are not hazardous wastes if only hazardous by oral LD50 criteria

  • acetic acid
  • aluminum chloride
  • ammonium bromide
  • ammonium sulfate
  • anisole
  • boric acid
  • calcium fluoride
  • calcium formate
  • calcium propionate
  • cesium chloride
  • magnesium chloride
  • potassium chloride

Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions
25141.5(b)(3)(A) HSC

These wastes are not hazardous wastes if only hazardous by oral LD50 criteria

  • sodium bicarbonate
  • sodium borate
  • decahydrate
  • sodium carbonate
  • sodium chloride
  • sodium iodide
  • sodium tetraborate
  • food flavoring oils:
    • allspice oil
    • ceylon cinnamon oil
    • clarified slurry oil
    • dill oils
    • lauryl leaf oils

Effective January 1, 1996

Excluded from hazardous waste classification for disposal purposes only

Hazardous only because of Total Threshold Limit Concentration

Must follow predisposal hazardous waste management requirements in regulations adopted by DTSC

Does not apply to:

  • liquids, sludges, sludge-likes, soils, finely divided or tarry materials
  • organic constituents

Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions
25143.1 HSC

Geothermal drilling wastes

Mining wastes

  • still subject to TPCA
  • still subject to Ch. 6.8, HSC

Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions
25143.1.5 HSC

Treated wood wastes

  • Effective January 1, 1996
  • treated wood wastes exclusively from electric, gas or telephone service
  • must be disposed in a landfill that is authorized to accept treated wood wastes

Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions
25143.8 HSC

Cementitious materials

  • effective January 1, 1996
  • cement, cement kiln dust, clinker, clinker dust
  • not required to be tested for solid corrosivity
  • if hazardous solely due to corrosivity for solids, excluded from classification as hazardous waste

Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions
25143.12 HSC

Petroleum contaminated debris if

  • wood, paper, textiles, concrete rubble, metallic objects, solid manufactured objects
  • not Federally regulated
  • does not contain free liquids
  • disposed in Class I or II landfill

Statutory Exclusions/Exemptions

Asbestos wastes

  • 25143.7 HSC
  • may be disposed in a landfill that is not Class I

Biohazardous waste

  • 25117.5 and 117635 HSC
  • formaldehyde fixed human surgery specimens or tissues
  • Wastes contaminated with chemotherapeutic agents
  • pharmaceuticals

Hazardous Waste Exemptions
22 CCR 66261.7

Contaminated containers

Exempted if “empty

  • RCRA empty
  • Empty containers are not hazardous wastes
  • Residues remaining in empty containers are not hazardous wastes
  • Still a CA hazardous waste unless CA empty too
  • California empty

California empty

Containers empty when:

  • Pourable wastes no longer pour when container inverted
  • Nonpourable wastes are scraped or otherwise removed
  • 5 gallons or smaller - destroyed and disposed
  • Larger than 5 gallons - reclaimed for scrap value, reconditioned, remanufactured, or refilled
  • Aerosols if completely discharged of contents and propellant

Hazardous Waste Identification Listings

Overview of hazardous waste classification

  • Is the material a waste?
    • Is the material excluded or exempted?
  • Is the waste excluded or exempted?
  • Is the waste listed in Article 4?
  • Is the waste listed in Appendix X?
  • Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?

Listed Hazardous Wastes
22 CCR Article 4

  • A waste is compared to the wastes described in the list
  • The source of the waste (i.e., the process that generated the waste) is more important than the waste’s characteristics or constituents
  • must meet all conditions of the listing

Three categories of lists

  1. Non-specific sources (F)
  2. Specific sources (K)
  3. Discarded commercial chemical products, off-specification species, and spill residues (P, U)

Overview of hazardous waste classification

  • Is the material a waste?
    • Is the material excluded or exempted?
  • Is the waste excluded or exempted?
  • Is the waste listed in Article 4?
  • Is the waste listed in Appendix X?
  • Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?

Appendix X

  • List of 791 chemicals
  • List of 66 common names or types of hazardous wastes
  • List creates a “presumption
  • Wastes listed or containing a listed chemical are presumed hazardous
  • Can be classified as nonhazardous using testing or knowledge, as with other wastes

Hazardous Waste Identification Characteristics

Overview of hazardous waste classification

  • Is the material a waste?
    • Is the material excluded or exempted?
  • Is the waste excluded or exempted?
  • Is the waste listed in Article 4?
  • Is the waste listed in Appendix X?
  • Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste?

Characteristics of Hazardous Wastes
22 CCR Article 3

  • Ignitability
  • Corrosivity
  • Reactivity
  • Toxicity

Ignitability
22 CCR 66261.21

  • Liquid with a flashpoint ≤ 140F (60C)
  • Not a liquid and is capable, under STP, of causing fire through friction, absorption of moisture or spontaneous chemical changes and, when ignited, burns so vigorously and persistently that it creates a hazard
  • Ignitable compressed gas
  • Oxidizer

Corrosivity
22 CCR 66261.22

pH

  • Aqueous solution with a pH ≤ 2 or ≥ 12.5
  • Not aqueous and, when mixed with an equal weight of water, has pH ≤ 2 or ≥ 12.5 (CA only)

Steel corrosion rate

  • Liquid that corrodes steel at a rate greater than 6.35mm per year
  • Not liquid, and, when mixed with an equal weight of water, corrodes steel at a rate greater than 6.35mm per year (CA only)

Reactivity
22 CCR 66261.23

  • explode or react violently when exposed to water or under normal handling conditions
  • create toxic fumes or gases when exposed to water or under common handling conditions
  • meets the criteria for classification as an explosive under Department of Transportation rules.

Toxicity
22 CCR 66261.24

Extractable Constituents

  • Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)
  • Persistent and Bioaccumulative Toxic Substances
    • Waste Extraction Test (WET)
    • Total Concentration
  • The TCLP is not interchangeable with the WET or the total analysis.

TCLP vs. WET

TCLP

  • Simulated landfill leachate
  • Acetic acid extractant
  • 18 hour extraction
  • 8 inorganic constituents
  • 23 organic constituents
  • less aggressive for inorganic constituents
  • zero headspace extractor for volatile organic compounds

WET

  • Simulated landfill leachate
  • Citric acid extractant
  • 48 hour extraction
  • 19 inorganic constituents
  • 18 organic constituents
  • more aggressive for inorganic constituents
  • not necessary for organic compounds

Federal Toxicity Characteristic
22 CCR 66261.24(a)(1)

  • D004 Arsenic
  • D005 Barium
  • D018 Benzene
  • D006 Cadmium
  • D019 Carbon tetrachloride
  • D020 Chlordane
  • D021 Chlorobenzene
  • D022 Chloroform
  • D007 Chromium
  • D023 o-Cresol
  • D024 m-Cresol
  • D025 p-Cresol
  • D026 Cresol
  • D016 2,4-D
  • D027 1,4-Dichloro-benzene
  • D028 1,2-Dichloro-ethane
  • D029 1,1 Dichloroethylene
  • D0302,4 Dinitrotoluene
  • D012 Endrinb
  • D031 Heptachlor (and its epoxide)
  • D032 Hexachlorobenzene
  • D033 Hexachlorobu- tadiene
  • D034 Hexachloroethane
  • D008 Lead
  • D013 Lindane
  • D009 Mercury
  • D014 Methoxychlor
  • D035 Methyl ethyl ketone
  • D036 Nitrobenzene
  • D037 Pentachlorophenol
  • D038 Pyridine
  • D010 Selenium
  • D011 Silver
  • D039 Tetrachloro-ethylene
  • D015 Toxaphene
  • D040 Trichloro-ethylene
  • D041 2,4,5 Trichloro-phenol
  • D042 2,4,6 Trichloro-phenol
  • D017 2,4,5-TP (Silvex)
  • D043 Vinyl chloride
  • Each constituent has a Regulatory Threshold (RT)
  • If the measured concentration in the TCLP extract equals or exceeds the RT, the waste is toxic and hazardous
  • Wastes hazardous for a particular constituent are identified by that waste code
 

Persistent and Bioaccumulative Toxic Substances
22 CCR 66261.24(a)(2)

Inorganic constituents

  • Both WET soluble and total concentrations

Organic constituents

  • Both WET soluble and total concentrations

Inorganic Constituents
22 CCR 66261.24(a)(2)(A)

  • Antimony
  • Arsenic
  • Asbestos
  • Barium
  • Beryllium
  • Cadmium
  • Chromium
  • Chromium VI
  • Cobalt
  • Copper
  • Fluoride Salts
  • Lead
  • Mercury
  • Molybdenum
  • Nickel
  • Selenium
  • Silver
  • Thallium
  • Vanadium
  • Zinc
 

Organic constituents
22 CCR 66261.24(a)(2)(B)

  • Aldrin
  • Chlordane
  • DDT,DDE, DDD
  • 2,4-Dichlorophen oxyacetic acid
  • Dieldren
  • Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD)
  • Endrin
  • Heptachlor
  • Kepone
  • Organic Lead Compounds
  • Lindane
  • Methoxychlor
  • Mirex
  • Pentachloro phenol
  • PBC's
  • Toxaphene
  • Trichloroethylene
  • 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyprpionic acid (silvex)
 

Persistent and Bioaccumulative Toxic Substances
22 CCR 66261.24(a)(2)

Toxic and hazardous if

  • ≥ Soluble Threshold Limit Concentration (STLC) by the WET (mg/L)
  • ≥ Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) by analysis for total concentration in waste (mg/kg)

WET versus TCLP

  • Relationship between total concentrations and WET and TCLP methods
  • WET method involves a 10-fold dilution of waste to extractant fluid of solid portion of waste
  • TCLP method involves a 20-fold dilution of waste to extractant fluid of solid portion of waste
  • If the chemical in a solid waste is 100% soluble in the waste, then the maximum extractable concentration result would be:
    • WET: 1/10 the total concentration
    • TCLP: 1/20 the total concentration

Example

530 mg/kg total lead concentration, the maximum soluble results would be

  • WET: 53 mg/l
  • TCLP: 26.5 mg/l

Both federal and state soluble thresholds for lead are 5 mg/l

Acute Toxicity

  • Oral Toxicity
  • Dermal Toxicity
  • Inhalation Toxicity
  • Acute Aquatic Toxicity

Acute Oral Toxicity
22 CCR 66261.24(a)(3)

Effective January 1, 1997

  • Waste is hazardous if oral LD502500 mg/kg ( 25141.5 HSC)
  • Regulations state oral LD505000 mg/kg

Acute Toxicity
22 CCR 66261.24(a)(4), (5) & (6)

  • Waste is hazardous if dermal LD50 <4300 mg/kg
  • Waste is hazardous if inhalation LC50 <10,000 ppm
  • Waste is Hazardous if acute aquatic toxicity 96-hour LC50<500 mg/liter

Carcinogenicity [22CCR 66261.24(a)(7)]

Hazardous if present in a waste in single or combined concentration exceeding 0.001 % (10 ppm)

  • 2-acetylaminofluorene
  • acrylonitrile
  • 4-aminodiphenyl
  • benzidine
  • bis(chloromethyl)ether
  • Methyl chloromethylether
  • 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane
  • 3,3-dichlorobenzidine
  • Dimethylaminoazobenzene
  • ethyleneimine
  • alpha-naphthylamine
  • beta-naphthylamine
  • 4-nitrobiphenyl
  • N-nitrosodimethylamine
  • beta-propiolactone
  • vinyl chloride
 

Experience or Testing
22 CCR 66261.24(a)(8)

  • Wastes shown through experience or testing to pose a hazard
  • The criteria were not expected to capture all possible wastes that could be hazardous
  • DTSC is required to modify Chapter 11 if a waste is identified as hazardous using this section and has statewide application ( 25141.5 HSC)

Waste Classification Process

  • Mixtures
    • Characteristic
    • RCRA Listed
  • Derived From
  • Contained In

Mixture Rule

Characteristic HW - nonRCRA and RCRA

  • Evaluate the mixture for hazardous waste characteristics
  • Intentional mixture to avoid regulation is treatment, and requires authorization

Listed HW Mixtures

  • RCRA listed hazardous wastes mixtures are hazardous wastes
  • concentrations are irrelevant

Exemptions

  • delisted or listed only for characteristic (ex. F003)

Derived From Rule

Wastes derived from the treatment, storage or disposal

  • Characteristic Wastes
    • Evaluate the mixture for HW characteristics
    • RCRA or nonRCRA characteristic
  • RCRA Listed Wastes
    • hazardous waste, even if treatment destroyed chemicals of concern
    • Exemption - delisted or listed only for characteristic (ex. F003)

Contained-in Policy

  • Applies to contaminated media and debris
  • Environmental media (water or soil) that contain listed wastes are hazardous wastes
    • unless it is demonstrated that the listed waste is present in insignificant concentrations (risk-based evaluation)

Categories of Hazardous Waste 22 CCR Article 5

  • RCRA Hazardous Wastes
  • NonRCRA Hazardous Wastes
    • Extremely Hazardous Wastes
    • Special Wastes
  • Other - Universal Wastes
    • 22 CCR 66273

Category Dictates:

  • Land disposal restrictions/treatment standards
  • Fees
    • Generator
    • Disposal
  • DTSC discretionary authority
    • variances
    • tiered permitting

RCRA Hazardous Wastes
22 CCR 66261.100

  • Not excluded
  • Listed (F,K,P,U lists)
  • Ignitable
  • Corrosive liquid
  • Reactive
  • Toxic (using TCLP)
  • Wastes are presumed RCRA unless determined otherwise

NonRCRA Hazardous Wastes
22 CCR 66261.101

  • Not listed (F,K,P,U lists)
  • Corrosive solid
  • Toxic for anything except for federal toxicity [22 CCR 66261.24(a)(1)]
  • Excluded under 40 CFR 261.4 and exhibits any of the Article 3 criteria
  • Containers that are “RCRA-empty but not “California-empty

Extremely Hazardous Waste Criteria
22 CCR 66261.110

  • Acute Oral Toxicity
    • Extremely hazardous if LD5050 mg/kg
  • Acute Dermal Toxicity
    • Extremely hazardous if LD5043 mg/kg
  • Acute Inhalation Toxicity
    • Extremely hazardous if LC50100 ppm
  • Carcinogenicity
    • single or combined concentration > 0.1 % (1000 ppm)

Extremely Hazardous Waste Criteria
22 CCR 66261.110 & 66261.113

  • Experience or Testing
  • Water Reactive
  • Calculated Acute Toxicity
  • Persistent and Bioaccumulative Toxic Substances
    • Total concentrations only
    • List and TTLCs differ from hazardous waste TTLCs

Special Waste
22 CCR 66261.120

  • Subset of nonRCRA hazardous wastes
  • Typically in larger waste volumes but pose lesser hazards
  • NOTself implementing - a generator must apply to DTSC to receive special waste classification
  • Eligible to be managed according to less stringent standards (not automatic)

Special Waste Criteria
22 CCR 66261.122

  • Can be hazardous for only inorganic constituents
  • Constituent concentrations may exceed their respective STLCs or TTLCs
  • WET-soluble concentration (when expressed in mg/kg) cannot exceed its TTLC value

Special Waste Management
22 CCR 66261.126

  • Waste can go into Class III landfill
  • Landfill must have WDRs for special waste
  • Landfill operator must have a variance from DTSC

Universal Waste Rule
22 CCR 66273

  • Fluorescent tubes, batteries, thermostats, CRTs
  • Relaxed standards to encourage proper management, recycling, and disposal
  • Emergency regulations - CRTs
  • Final rule for fluorescent tubes, thermostats, batteries
    • effective February 8, 2002
    • household exemption sunset in 4 years
    • small generators exemption - after 2 year a reduction and then sunsets in 4 years

Universal Waste Rule

SB 633

  • effective January 1, 2002
  • mercury light switches removed from vehicles as universal waste
  • 25214.6 HSC
  • regulations are needed to clarify

AB 1158

  • aerosol cans are universal waste
  • 25201.16 HSC
  • statutes are sufficiently clear for universal waste management

Generator Options Miscellaneous Information

Waste Classification Options

  • Self-classify, and manage accordingly [66260.200(c)]
  • Generator responsibility
  • DTSC concurrence [66260.200(d)]
  • DTSC reclassification [66260.200(f)]
    • public notice if granted (25141.6 HSC)
    • adopt regulations if broad application (25141.5 HSC)
  • DTSC special waste (66261.124
  • All DTSC determinations are subject to fee for service

Generator Options - Variance
22 CCR 66260.210 & 25143 HSC

  • Allows generator to manage hazardous waste differently hazardous waste management requirements in regulations or statute
  • must obtain DTSC approval
  • must meet criteria outlined in statute and regulations
  • Variance criteria
    • requirements, waste, waste quantity, management activity or management unit is insignificant or unimportant as a hazard to human health or environment when managed according to variance conditions
    • requirements imposed, waste handling, processing, disposal or waste management activity is adequately managed by another governmental agency

Miscellaneous Hazardous Waste Classification Information

  • 25157.8 HSC
  • AB 2784 (1998) and AB 414 (2001)
  • Effective January 1, 1999
  • Wastes with lead 350ppm must be disposed in Class I landfill
  • Exception: waste disposed before August 21, 1998
  • Wastes with lead 350ppm are not hazardous wastes unless they also exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic (no other hazardous waste requirements required other than disposal to Class I landfill)
  • sunsets July 1, 2006 (extended from July 1, 2003)

Hazardous Waste Classification

  • Department of Toxic Substances Control
  • Waste Identification and Recycling Section
    • Evaluating goals and customer needs
    • Helpline:  916-322-7676

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Last updated: January 10, 2005
LEA Training, http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/LEA/Training/
Donnaye Palmer: Donnaye.Palmer@calrecycle.ca.gov (916) 341-6321