California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle) 

The Comprehensive Compost Odor Response Project (C-CORP) Report

Table 13: Interactive Odor Mitigation Alternative Matrix

Vial # Odor Descriptors Chemical Green Material Food Scraps Manure Biosolids MSW 1-Receiving 2-Grinding 3-Mixing 4-Composting 5-Screening 6-Site 7-Curing Pile 8-Stormwater
1 Pungent Ammonia                          
  Medicinal                            
  Irritating   * * ** * ** 1   9 16        
  Urine   1   (2)   (3)                
  Ammonia                            
2 Fishy Amines Mix                          
  Putrid Methyl Amine * * **   ** 2   10 17        
  Decaying Dimethyl amine (1)       (3)                
    Trimethyl amine                          
6 Decaying Flesh Putracine                          
  Putrid Cadaverine   *     ** 3   11 18        
  Nauseating     (4)     (5)                
  Dead Animal                            
3 Piney Terpenes                          
  Woody Eucalyptol                          
  Sharp Pinene **         4 8 12   22 23    
  Lemony Limonene                          
  Grassy                            
4 Rotten Cabbage Mercaptans                          
  Skunky Methyl mercaptan   * ** * * 5   13 19   24 27 30
  Decaying vegetation Ethyl mercaptan     (6)   (7)                
5 Sulfur Reduced sulfides                          
  Rotten Egg Dimethyl disulfide   * ** ** * 6   14 20   25 28 31
  Garlicky Hydrogen sulfide         (7)                
    Dimethyl disulfide                          
7 Rancid Organic acids                          
  Vinegary Butyric acid * ** *     7   15 21   26 29 32
  Putrid Acetic acid (1)                        
  Sour milk Valeric acid                          
  Decayed                            
  Garbagey                            

* Presence of compound detected
**More concentrated presence of compound detected

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1. Mitigation alternatives for ammonia at the receiving area

1.1.1 Mix materials upon receipt (increase material porosity).

1.1.2 Stockpile bulking agent or high carbon amendments as receiving basin.

1.1.3 Stockpile bulking agents or high carbon amendments for unexpected deliveries.

1.1.5 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

1.1.9 Reject odorous loads if possible.

1.1.11 Incorporate wet or odorous loads directly into actively composting windrows.

1.2.1 Expedited material processing.

1.2.7* Increase collection frequency.*

1.2.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost. (water lightly to reduce odor releases)

*if grassy

2. Mitigation alternatives for amines at the receiving area

1.1.1 Mix materials upon receipt (increase material porosity).

1.1.2 Stockpile bulking agent or high carbon amendments as receiving basin.

1.1.3 Stockpile bulking agents or high carbon amendments for unexpected deliveries.

1.1.4 Make smaller piles.

1.1.5 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

1.1.7 Aerate receiving floor.

1.1.9 Reject odorous loads if possible.

1.1.11 Incorporate wet or odorous loads directly into actively composting windrows.

1.2.1 Expedite material processing.

1.2.7 Increase collection frequency.

1.2.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

*if grassy

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3. Mitigation alternatives for putracine and cadaverine at the receiving area

1.1.1 Mix materials upon receipt (increase material porosity).

1.1.2 Stockpile bulking agent or high carbon amendments as receiving basin.

1.1.3 Stockpile bulking agents or high carbon amendments for unexpected deliveries.

1.1.4 Make smaller piles.

1.1.5 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

1.1.7 Aerate receiving floor.

1.1.9 Reject odorous loads if possible.

1.1.11 Incorporate wet or odorous loads directly into actively composting windrows.

1.2.1 Expedite material processing.

1.2.7 Increase collection frequency.

1.2.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

4. Mitigation alternatives for terpenes at the receiving area

1.1.5 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

1.2.1 Expedite material processing.

1.2.8 Increase grinding/processing capacity (contract grinder/screener).

1.2.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

5. Mitigation alternatives for mercaptans at the receiving area

1.1.1 Mix materials upon receipt (increase material porosity).

1.1.2 Stockpile bulking agent or high carbon amendments as receiving basin.

1.1.3 Stockpile bulking agents or high carbon amendments for unexpected deliveries.

1.1.4 Make smaller piles.

1.1.5 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

1.1.8 Add lime or wood ash to piles to adjust pH.

1.2.1 Expedite material processing.

1.2.6 Reduce size of material stockpiles.

1.2.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

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6. Mitigation alternatives for ammonia at the receiving area

1.1.1 Mix materials upon receipt (increase material porosity).

1.1.2 Stockpile bulking agent or high carbon amendments as receiving basin.

1.1.3 Stockpile bulking agents or high carbon amendments for unexpected deliveries.

1.1.4 Make smaller piles.

1.1.5 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

1.1.8 Add lime or wood ash to piles to adjust pH.

1.2.1 Expedite material processing.

1.2.6 Reduce size of material stockpiles.

1.2.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

7. Mitigation alternatives for ammonia at the receiving area

1.1.1 Mix materials upon receipt (increase material porosity).

1.1.2* Stockpile bulking agent or high carbon amendments as receiving basin.

1.1.3* Stockpile bulking agents or high carbon amendments for unexpected deliveries.

1.1.4 Make smaller piles.

1.1.5 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

1.1.9 Reject odorous loads if possible.

1.1.11 Incorporate wet or odorous loads directly into actively composting windrows.

1.2.1 Expedite material processing.

1.2.6 Reduce size of material stockpiles.

1.2.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

*if food waste

8. Mitigation alternatives for terpenes at grinding

2.1.1 Add light misting of water or odor neutralizer to grinder at discharge points.

2.1.3 Consider grinding green materials with woodier materials.

9. Mitigation alternatives for ammonia at mixing

3.1.1 Create windrows/piles that are sufficiently blended.

3.1.2 Combine materials to achieve a high C:N ratio (greater than 30 to 1).

3.1.8 Mist water or odor neutralizer at dust generation points.

10. Mitigation alternatives for amines at mixing

3.1.1 Create windrows/piles that are sufficiently blended.

3.1.2 Combine materials to achieve a high C:N ratio (greater than 30 to 1).

3.1.3 Create piles with good porosity.

11. Mitigation alternatives for putracine and cadaverine at mixing

3.1.1 Create windrows/piles that are sufficiently blended.

3.1.2 Combine materials to achieve a high C:N ratio (greater than 30 to 1).

3.1.3 Create piles with good porosity.

12. Mitigation alternatives for terpenes at mixing

3.1.1 Create windrows/piles that are sufficiently blended.

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13. Mitigation alternatives for mercaptans at mixing

3.1.1 Create windrows/piles that are sufficiently blended.

3.1.2 Combine materials to achieve a high C:N ratio (greater than 30 to 1).

3.1.3 Create piles with good porosity.

14. Mitigation alternatives for reduced sulfur compounds at mixing

3.1.1 Create windrows/piles that are sufficiently blended.

3.1.2 Combine materials to achieve a high C:N ratio (greater than 30 to 1).

3.1.3 Create piles with good porosity.

15. Mitigation alternatives for organic acids at mixing

3.1.1 Create windrows/piles that are sufficiently blended.

3.1.2 Combine materials to achieve a high C:N ratio (greater than 30 to 1).

3.1.3 Create piles with good porosity.

16. Mitigation alternatives for ammonia at composting

4.1.4 Maintain sufficient moisture in windrows.

4.1.7* Diligently monitor and manage the composting process.

4.1.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

*with particular attention to pH

17. Mitigation alternatives for amines at composting

4.1.3 Turn regularly to re-invigorate the composting process.

4.1.5 Avoid over-watering windrows.

4.1.6 Make smaller windrows to increase passive aeration.

4.1.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

18. Mitigation alternatives for putrascine and cadaverine at composting

4.1.3 Turn regularly to re-invigorate the composting process.

4.1.5 Avoid over-watering windrows.

4.1.6 Make smaller windrows to increase passive aeration.

4.1.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

19. Mitigation alternatives for mercaptans at composting

4.1.3 Turn regularly to re-invigorate the composting process.

4.1.5 Avoid over-watering windrows.

4.1.6 Make smaller windrows to increase passive aeration.

4.1.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

4.1.11 Adopt forced aeration.

20. Mitigation alternatives for reduced sulfur compounds at composting

4.1.3 Turn regularly to re-invigorate the composting process.

4.1.5 Avoid over-watering windrows.

4.1.6 Make smaller windrows to increase passive aeration.

4.1.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

4.1.11 Adopt forced aeration.

21. Mitigation alternatives for organic acids at composting

4.1.3 Turn regularly to re-invigorate the composting process.

4.1.5 Avoid over-watering windrows.

4.1.6 Make smaller windrows to increase passive aeration.

4.1.9 Consider blanketing odiferous materials with a six inch to one-foot layer of bulking agent, high carbon amendments, or finished compost (water lightly to reduce odor releases).

4.1.11 Adopt forced aeration.

22. Mitigation alternatives for terpenes at screening

Nothing in particular

23. Mitigation alternatives for terpenes at the site

6.1.1 Clean aisles of spilled material. (Particularly at the end of each day).

6.2.1 Clean aisles of spilled material (Particularly at the end of each day).

6.2.2 Mechanically sweep paved areas at the end of each shift

24. Mitigation alternatives for mercaptans at the site

6.1.1 Clean aisles of spilled material (Particularly at the end of each day).

6.2.1 Clean aisles of spilled material (Particularly at the end of each day).

6.2.2 Mechanically sweep paved areas at the end of each shift.

6.2.3 Apply water and/or neutralizer to reduce dust during dry conditions.

25. Mitigation alternatives for reduced sulfur compounds at the site

6.1.1 Clean aisles of spilled material (Particularly at the end of each day).

6.2.2 Mechanically sweep paved areas at the end of each shift.

6.2.3 Apply water and/or neutralizer to reduce dust during dry conditions.

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26. Mitigation alternatives for organic acids at the site

Nothing in particular

27. Mitigation alternatives for mercaptans at curing

7.1.1 Decrease curing pile size (height).

7.1.2 Increase processing time prior to moving to curing.

7.1.3 Review moisture content of in-process compost.

7.1.4 Screen after curing to maintain porosity.

7.1.5. Aerate curing piles.

28. Mitigation alternatives for reduced sulfur compounds at curing

7.1.1 Decrease curing pile size (height).

7.1.2 Increase processing time prior to moving to curing.

7.1.3 Review moisture content of in-process compost.

7.1.4 Screen after curing to maintain porosity.

7.1.5 Aerate curing piles.

29. Mitigation alternatives for organic acids at curing

7.1.1 Decrease curing pile size (height).

7.1.2 Increase processing time prior to moving to curing.

7.1.3 Review moisture content of in-process compost.

7.1.4 Screen after curing to maintain porosity.

7.1.5 Aerate curing piles.

30. Mitigation alternatives for mercaptans in runoff

8.1.1 Review NPDES procedures to minimize storm water contact with organic materials.

8.1.2 Remove particles from water draining into stormwater retention basin.

8.1.3 Filter stormwater through a filter berm or sock.

31. Mitigation alternatives for reduced sulfur compounds in runoff

8.1.1 Review NPDES procedures to minimize storm water contact with organic materials.

8.1.2 Remove particles from water draining into stormwater retention basin.

8.1.3 Filter stormwater through a filter berm or sock.

32. Mitigation alternatives for organic acids in runoff

8.1.1 Review NPDES procedures to minimize storm water contact with organic materials.

8.1.2 Remove particles from water draining into stormwater retention basin.

8.1.3 Filter stormwater through a filter berm or sock.

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C-CORP Report | Best Management Practices Home

Last updated: October 2, 2008
Compostable Materials, http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/SWFacilities/Compostables/
Martin Perez: Martin.Perez@calrecycle.ca.gov (916) 323-0834